Темы для обсуждения на уроках в 8-9 классах
Экзаменационные темы для 9 класса Билет 1 (ориентировочно) Билет 2 Билет 3 Билет 4
Экзаменационные темы для 9 класса
Билет 1 (ориентировочно)
Темы для обсуждения на уроках английского
Bridges can be different
(По материалам журнала "ИяШ"-2005г. Методическая мозаика №5-6)
... A man built a city, banks and cathedrals...
(The words from the U2 song)
Man built bridges - crossings of diverse natural obstacles - for walking on foot, for transport, for trade, for lovers watching the stars at night and much else besides. People have become so used to them that bridges are nothing unusual for us. Though at the same time a bridge is a genuine miracle... here are the top 11.
This bridge was situated in Babylon and built in the 7th century AD. Its length was about 700 metres and it was 9 metres in width. The Euphrates river flowed under it. This most ancient bridge led to the main temple.
The trouble with this bridge was that not everyone could use it. More than 100 years ago the Italian acrobat Maria Spelterrini walked the tightrope across Niagara Falls.
The bridge is in the West of the USA, in the stone desert of Utah state. It leads nowhere. This bridge is the length of a football ground. In fact the US Capitol could fit under its arch.
The Ponte Vecchio forms part of the Florence World Heritage site. Tins inhabited urban bridge is across the Arno river and has three great segmented arches on massive piers. It replaced a similar bridge that failed in 1333. The architect is Taddeo Gaddi,
The Spectacular Confederation Bridge links Cape Jourimain, New Brunswick and Borden- Carleton,
Prince Edward Island, the islands situated in the Atlantic ocean not far from Canada. The technology of the 90s made; possible the construction of a bridge stretching almost 13 kilometres. It is presently the longest bridge in the world to cross ice-covered sail water.
This bridge was built in 2004 over the Tarne valley in France. The engineers brought the two central ends of the Millau road viaduct in southwest France together, completing the span of the highest bridge in the world. The road surface is 270 metres above the ground. The bridge, along the most direct route from Paris to the Mediterranean, was opened to public traffic on December 17. 2004, 39 months after work began.
The "Rainbow Bridge" in Jinze, near Shanghai is so called because of its shape and colours. Until last year the Rainbow Bridge, the only arched bridge made of straight timbers, existed only in a painting from nine hundred years ago. Its length is 15 metres and its width is 3.6 metres. In mythology a rainbow is considered a road between the world of the gods and the world of the mortals.
Such bridges arc mostly built in Denmark and Northern Holland. A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is also used to describe modern bascule bridges and lift bridges. The most common type of drawbridge consists of a wooden platform with one fixed side and the other side attached to a wall. It is raised by ropes or chains. Pulling on the chain raises the bridge.
The most unusual
This bridge is built between two tiny islands in the part of the St Laurence river where Canada borders the USA. The point is that this bridge is an international one and the smallest in the world.
The bigger island belongs to Canada and the smaller one - to the USA.
Nan Pu Bridge was built in 1991 in Shanghai. It has a navigational overhead clearance of 46 metres, accommodating any steamer with a tonnage of 55,000. With a full length of 846 metres and a width of 30, 35 metres, the bridge has six traffic lanes and two pedestrian lanes. Historically it is the first modern heavy-duty bridge in China, spiraling over the Huang Pu river like a gigantic dragon lifting its head.
Е.О.Грачева, студентка III курса МГПУ, Москва
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