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Топики для 9 класса:

I. My school

II. The education system of Russia

 

    

I. MY SCHOOL

 

 

My name is Tanya. I am 15 years old. I want to receive a good education and I go to school. The number of my school is 338. My school is an ordinary secondary comprehensive one. My school is neither big nor small. It is rather old because it is 30 years old.

There is a schoolyard around it. There are a lot of flowers near my school. One can see a sports ground behind the school. We have our physical training lessons there, if the weather is fine. There is a school plot in front of our school. We like to work on the school plot in spring and in autumn.

Our school has got three floors. There is a workshop on the ground floor. It is big. There are different kinds of tools and machines there. The boys of our school like to work there.

There is a room for manual work for girls. It is not on the ground floor, it is on the first floor. There are some computer classes in our school, pupils like such school subject as computing.

If you enter the school and go to the left you will see a dining-room. Teachers and pupils of our school have their break­fast and dinner there. The dining-room is very clean. There are many nice pictures on the walls. There is a gymnasium near the dining-room. All pupils like to go there, because they like physical training lessons.

Our school has got a library. The school library is a collection of books, teaching aids and textbooks. It is on the second floor.

There are a lot of interesting old and new books in it. Our library has got a reading-room. One can read and look through newspapers, magazines, books in it. Our librarian, Olga Sergeevna likes her work, she helps the pupils to find hooks, which they need.

Many teachers of our school go to the school library too. I am sure that all our teachers axe skilled. I think to be a good teacher means to be a highly educated person and to know a lot.

There are many classrooms in our school. We have got two English class­rooms. Our skilled and kind teachers Lyudmila Nikolaevna and Tamara Pav-lovna work there. Their lessons are in­teresting and useful. We try to speak English during all lessons.

We have History, Geography and Physics classrooms too. They are big, light; each of them has got two large win­dows with green curtains, flowers on the window-sills, a bookcase near the door, the blackboard on the wall. The teacher's table with many books on it is situated not far from the blackboard. There are twenty desks and comfortable chairs in these classrooms.

It is necessary to say about our school hall. We organize school parties there.

Pupils of our school sing songs, dance modern   and   folk dances   and   perform; some plays there. "The last bell" is orga­nized at our school in a proper way. It is a very remarkable day in the life of all pupils. The pupils of the first form and the pupils of the eleventh one prepare for this day with great pleasure.

I have many schoolmates. Among them there are Tolya and Larisa. We study at school well, take an active part in our school life. Larisa likes music and she also goes to the music school.

My favourite subject is English. I am good at English. I am sure that it is neces­sary to learn foreign languages. Knowl­edge of foreign languages helps young people of different countries to under­stand each other. I like my school very much.

I spent 10 years at school. I studied at school, I had many friends there, and I learnt a lot.

I understand that I was happy at school.

 

WORDS:

1. comprehensive — общеобразователь­ная школа

2. secondary school — средняя школа

3.  Teaching aids учебные пособия

4. ground floor первый этаж

5. to take part in school life — принимать участие в школьной жизни

6.  To go to the music school посещать музыкальную школу

7. To be good at — преуспевать в чем-либо, достигать успеха.

 

DIALOGUE

 

— Hello, I have not seen you for ages! Where have you been?

— Oh, I have been to London.

— What did you do there?

— I studied at English school last two months.

— Oh, it is rather interesting. Can you tell me anything about the system of edu­cation in England?

— Yes, of course. England has got a very interesting system of education. There are some state and private schools in this country,

— Have boys and girls their school uni­forms?

— Yes, they have. It is an old tradition to wear school uniforms in England.

— Can you tell me about a boy's uni­form?

— Yes, I can. It consists of a special suit, a school cap, a tie and a blazer.

— Have girls their uniform too?

— Yes, they have. Д girl's uniform con­sists of a hat, a skirt and a blouse. As usual their uniform is dark and the girls don't like it.

— Do English pupils go to school on Saturdays and Sundays?

— No, they don't. They go to school neither on Saturdays nor on Sun­days.

— What subjects do they study at school.'

— They study many interesting sub­jects such as History, English, Geogra­phy, Art, Music, Mathematics and others.

— Do they study Russian?

 — It is not necessary to study Russian in England. But if you want to know Rus­sian you can study it.

— Thank you very much. Now I know a lot about English schools.

 

QUESTIONS  

                                                                      

1. What is the number of your school?

2. Is your school big or small?

3. Is there a schoolyard near your school?

4. How many floors has your school got?

5. Where is the school library situated?

6. Where can the pupils take books for reading?


  

II. The education system of Russia

 

The education system of Russia consists of two major levels: the pre-higher or school education and higher education.

I will tell about both in bigger detail later on. As for now, I would like to explain the grading systems of both levels.

In secondary schools as well as in higher education institutions, the five-grade scale is used, from 1 to 5. One being the lowest and five being the highest on the scale. Although, to the best of my knowledge, 1 is extremely rare used.

Also, for some subjects two-grade scale is used and a student gets either pass or fail.

The structure of school education consists of two levels: the compulsory education and the secondary education.

Children are admitted to school at the age of 6 years and end this level at the age of 15. Thus, the duration of compulsory education is nine years.

School students who successfully graduate this level may enter senior high school to get complete secondary education, which lasts two years from the age of 15 until students are 17 years old. Also, those who finished compulsory education have an option to enter a vocational school providing professional education.

At vocational schools, students usually finish secondary education and get trained as technicians or skilled workers in various trades.

In any case, every student who finished 11 years of schooling is awarded a Certificate of Secondary Complete General Education. This certificate gives school-leavers an opportunity to apply for entrance to a higher education institution.

There are several types of higher education institutions in Russia: University, Academy, Institute, Conservatory, College, and Vocational School.

Apart from the school-leaving certificate, each of these institutions set obligatory entrance exams and or tests. Only those who successfully passed entrance exams may hope to be admitted. At some universities entrance exams are very competitive and only the best of the best get through. Of course, grades from the school-leaving certificate are also taken into account.

Higher education institution may be public or state and non-public. Higher education as well as school education used to be provided on a fully free basis. Presently, part of students of public and all students of non-public institutions have to pay for their tuition. The tuition fee range considerably depending on the university reputation and specific departments. Today, mere are over 600 public and more man 200 accredited non-public or non-state higher education institutions in Russia. Currently, Russian educational system is undergoing drastic reforms. Every university or institute has been given a great part of autonomy in their every day activity. At the university level, students usually study for five years. The curriculum includes general and special courses in sciences, the humanities, and professional training. After completion of final research project called Diploma project and passing State final exams they are awarded Diplomas of Higher Education. Then, they can leave university and find a job according to their specialization.

However, many students choose to continue their studies at the post-university level. After additional 2 years, they are awarded the Master's degree. Most dedicated to scientific research decide to go in for doctoral degrees.

There are two levels of doctoral degree, which do not have equivalent in Western systems of education.

They are Kandidat Nauk degree (or Candidat of Sciences) and Doktor Nauk degree (or Doctor of Sciences degree).

                                                                   

 

                                  ***  

                                                          

Система образования в России делится на два уровня: школьное образование и высшее образование. Я расскажу вам о том и другом подробнее несколько позже. А сейчас я бы хотел рассказать о структуре каждого уровня в отдельности.

Как в средней школе, так ив высших учебных заведениях, используется пятибалльная система оценок, от 1 до 5, где 1 - самая низкая, а 5 - самая высшая оценка. Хотя, насколько я знаю, единица используется очень редко. Некоторые предметы оцениваются по двухбалльной шкале: в этом случае студент получает либо зачет, либо незачет. Школьное образование делится на два уровня: обязательное и среднее образование.  Детей принимают в школу с шести лет; в 15 лет образование на данном уровне заканчивается.

Таким образом, срок обязательного образования- 9 лет. Ученики, успешно закончившие 9 классов, могут поступить в 10 класс, чтобы получить законченное среднее образование в высшей средней школе студент учится 2 года- с 15 до 17лет.

Также те, кто получил обязательное образование, могут продолжить свое обучение в профессионально техническом учреждении (ПТУ), которое обеспечивает получение профессии. В ПТУ студенты получают законченное среднее образование; из них готовят специалистов и квалифицированных рабочих различных специальностей.

В любом случае, по окончании 11 классов обучения школьник получает Аттестат о получении Законченного среднего общего образования. Этот аттестат дает выпускникам школы возможность поступить в высшее учебное заведение (вуз).

В России Высшие учебные заведения делятся на университеты, Академии, институты, консерватории, колледжи и Профессионально-технические заведения. Кроме аттестата, для поступления в вуз, выпускнику школы в обязательном порядке требуется сдать вступительные экзамены или тесты. Только успешная сдача экзаменов может служить гарантией поступления. В некоторых вузах вступительные экзамены отличаются особой сложностью и только лучшие из лучших могут справится с испытаниями. Общий балл оценок в школьном аттестате также учитывается при поступлении.

Вузы могут быть как государственными, так и негосударственными. Как и шкальное, так и высшее образование раньше было полностью бесплатным. В настоящее время часть студентов, обучающихся в государственных вузах, и все студенты негосударственных вузов вынуждены платить за свое обучение. Платное обучение или нет, часто зависит от того, престижно ли данное учебное заведение или отдельный факультет.

На сегодняшний день в России функционирует более 600 государственных и более 200 негосударственных аккредитованных (признанных государством) вузов.

Сегодня, Российская система образования подвергается радикальным изменениям (преобразованиям).

Каждый вуз получил право на самоуправление для решения рутинных вопросов. Нормативный срок обучения в университете- 5 лет. В учебный план входят общеобразовательные дисциплины и специальные предметы в

зависимости от специализации (естественные или гуманитарные науки, профессиональная

подготовка).

После защиты выпускной квалифицированной работы (диплома) и сдачи итоговых государственных экзаменов, студенты получают Диплом о высшем образовании. После этого они могут покинуть университет, и устроится на работу в соответствии с присужденной им квалификацией. Тем не менее, многие студенты предпочитают продолжить свое обучение в аспирантуре. Спустя еще два года они удостаиваются степени Магистра. Большинство посвятивших себя науке решаются на получение докторской степени. В Российской системе высшего образования есть две ступени получения докторской степени, не имеющие эквивалента на Западе.

Это кандидат наук и только потом - Доктор наук.


 


Вперёд на III. Education in Russia

 

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