Краеведение помогает языкознаию
If someone asks you a question you don't want to answer, smile and ask,"Why do you want to know?"
For 9th Form.
Excursion to the Museum of History and Regional Studies of Khvastovichy Secondary School.
Цель: практическое обучение школьников устной речи (говорению и аудированию); создание реальных условий общения на английском языке; формирование и совершенствование речевых навыков учащихся; употребление в речи и восприятие на слух, изученный на уроках языковой материал в различных ситуациях.
Образовательные и воспитательные задачи:
а) воспитание интереса к предмету;
б) получение новой информации;
в) расширение кругозора учащихся.
Речевой материал: лексические единицы по теме «Музей».
Оснащение: фотографии с видами залов Краеведческого Музея Хвастовичской средней школы.
Вступительное слово учителя. Выступления учащихся.
The Museum of History and Regional Studies (Ethnography) is located in Khvastovichy Secondary School. Titov Pyotr Andreevich was a founder and an organizer of the school museum. He was a teacher of Geography. The museum has been creating since 1955. Pyotr Andreevich?s love for children, his profession, nature, native land developed into a close and prospecting work together with the pupils. A circle “Youth Tourist” was founded in 1957. Here Pyotr Andreevich brought up and trained young tourists. The motto of the young tourists was: “To look for and not to give up, to find and to study!” The children sent off to the hiking expeditions not only within Khvastovichy land but also they left Khvastovichy land. On returning home they brought many new exhibits for the museum. There are 2.750 exhibits in the museum now, among them 1000 are originals.
In the Museum of History and Regional Studies there are 7 halls, they are Lenin Hall, Regional Studies (Ethnography), Period of Recent History, Present. The central place takes 2 halls; they are Hall of Partisan Fame and Hall of the Fighting Fame. The most beautiful monument from the point of view of Pyotr Andreevich is this Museum of Khvastovichy Secondary School. It is a proud of Khvastovichy Land.
Material about history, nature of Khvastovichy is gathered here.
“With gold needle, with gold thread.
Your design was embroidered.
You are my native land”.
In this hall is the stand “The Vegetation”. The main wealth of our region is forest. Here only separate kinds of trees, bushes and grass are represented, such as birch, oak, maple, poplar, ash berry, and sorrel.
At the stand “History” you can see drawings, pictures of the first staying on the bank of the river Oka. There are implements of labour and weapon of the primitive man. In the show case there are equipments of work, subjects of the first necessity, weapon of the latest period (17-19 centuries).
The stand “Climate” helps us to understand that the climate on the territory of our region is moderate- continental (not very hot in summer and not very cold in winter). Here we can see the schemes of falling of snow and rain, blanket of snow, temperature of air and other information. A rich paleonthological collection of the largest herbivorous animal, blade- gill mollusks, timber and so on is presented in these two show- cases. Then there is also a show-case with minerals of our region, such as clay, river, quartz, glass sands, limestone and others. The animal world of our region is rich and different; it is presented by stuffed animals of the bear, elk, squirrel, stuffed birds, steppe eagle, wader, and woodpecker.
One of the most interesting sections is numismatics. There are coins, paper signs of Russian State and foreign countries. The visitor’s attention is stricken with the collection of ancient Russian samovars.
There are reflected hiking expeditions of the young tourists in the 60-70th years on the stands, and also of the participants of the meteorological circle and others.
Ethnography. Peasant’s House.
A piece of land, wooden plough and harrow. A native land was like this. Here is furniture of peasant’s house where grandfathers and great grandfathers lived. It is destitute and shabby.
The peasants who were oppressed by the exaction and taxes of rich people dragged out a miserable existence, peasant’s properties were natural. Peasants couldn’t afford industrial goods because of poverty. They produced everything at home. They bought just the most necessary things such as salt, matches, kerosene, seldom soap.
They used ash to wash linen. The peasants were also poor because of poor soil. The peasants had to buy bread in black – soil regions.
In Lenin Hall you got acquainted with the worker of Petersburg bolshevik Vinogradov Vasily Petrovich. In his letters to us he wrote: the inhabitants of your village lived very poorly. The houses were small, without floor, covered by straw; they heated their houses with the help of smoke. The property of the peasants was poor; clothes were made of homes pun material. They wore only bast – shoes.
Nowadays our village is situated in a big tract of the forest. Then the forest belonged to the landowners and peasants had no possibility to use timber.
From dawn to dusk peasants worked hard for gentry, they were busy with trade stripped bast, wash – rag, fired wood coal, drove tar.
Everything was exported to the Oryol steppe regions. The children had much to do too. They looked after animals. In summer they went to the forest to pick up berries and mushrooms.
Especially women were very busy. They had to do all domestic duties, to make clothes for all family. It means they had to spin flax and wool threads, then to weave, in spring to bleach material, then to make clothes for all members of the family.
They sow by hand, it was an enormous work. During the long winter evenings women gathered together in one of the houses with spinning wheels and with the twinkling and crackling of splinters and buzz of spinning wheels sang songs about their difficult fate. There is a spinning wheel for making bast shoes in the museum.
Every house had weaving loom.
There are clothes of a boy and a woman in the peasant’s house. The boy’s clothes are made of rough holland. The woman’s clothes are more beautiful. They were washed and sown of thin material, thin wool. The holiday clothes are especially beautiful. They are decorated with brocade, beads. There were no sewing machines, they sow by hands, but you’ll never say that it was made by hand. Poverty, destitution, domination of clergy, and poisoning consciousness of illiterate peasants – everything made peasants believe in the supernatural forces.
That’s why there is a place with icons in every peasant’s house. There is a saint corner – but we speak about the art of masters. There are such icons as icons of Michael Archangel, Pyotr’s times, Nickolai Chudotvorets. They are made by real masters and artists. The biggest part of the peasant’s house was occupied by a stove. It gave warmth; it was used to cook meal. It was a sleeping – berth for the family. Besides there was a high place for sleeping near the stove. In some peasant’s houses there were home – made wooden beds with primitive bed clothes. The straw served as sheet and a rough piece o material was put on it.
In winter people put on fur – coats.
The mills were used for grinding grain.
The mortar was used for grinding grain. The forest was used for making things necessary for life. The cradle is made of lime bark; there are baskets for gathering berries, mushrooms, and baskets for different necessaries, plates, salt – cellars, bread – plate, fat – plate. One of the tables is 160 years – it is made of the whole time board. There is an ancient Russian samovar. There is a table for ironing clothes. There is a small barrel for beer or kvass, jugs for oil and milk, ancient scales, a ladle. There is a wash – stand, a tub, a towel.
There are documents about heroic fight of partisans during the Great Patriotic War on the territory of our region. There is a stand devoted to the commander-in chief of the partisan detachment “In the battle for Motherland” Nikolai Ivanovich Buslovsky. People said that Buslovsky was not only a remarkable commander-in-chief, a father for all partisans but a friend, a comrade and he was the most human person. The largest stand is “Fame of these people won't disappear”. Pictures of the partisans, soldiers, officers of the 61st Army named after Belov are situated here.
The partisans rendered a fighting assistance to the regular troops. Here we can see pictures and names of those who during occupation always helped partisans. They were executed for the intercommunication with the partisans. They were awarded posthumously.
These rewards in the form of the medal books are situated here in the show-case. There are front letters of the partisans, newspapers of the war times with the decrees about awarding of the partisans, summaries of the fighting deeds of the partisan detachment named after Buslovsky, underground partisan newspaper “For Motherland”, partisan leaflets published by partisan printing house. Here also are gathered characteristics, references of the partisans which reflect their fighting deeds, personal things of the partisans, clothes, map cases, watches and so on. All of them are relics. The largest correspondence of partisans with their reminiscences is represented here. The partisan detachment “In the fight for Motherland” acted on the territory of our region during the occupation from the 7th of October to the 20th of August 1943. The detachment brought serious blows to the occupants. The partisans destroyed more than 9 thousand fascists, exploded 36 military trains, 113 cars, 326 carriages, 97 tanks, plodded 5 railway and 13 other bridges, many telephone-telegraph stations. 12 thousand newspapers “For Motherland” and 35 thousand leaflets were published during the occupation.
Khvastovichy People's Museum keeps sacred memory about the dearest to us persons- partisans of Khvastovichy region.
Fighting Fame. Glory. Khvastovichy in the years of the
Great Patriotic War.
At dawn on June 22, 1941, Hitler’s armies attacked the Soviet Union without declaring war. The Great Patriotic War, which was to last about four years, began. The Hitlerites brought 190 divisions into action on the first day of the war. They had the advantage of a surprise attack. Frontier units and divisions stationed along the Soviet. German border were the first to shoulder the enemy’s blow. Soviet soldiers courageously met the Nazis and fought them to the last.
The inhabitans of the Kaluga Region together with all the Soviet people arose to defend our Socialist Motherland. The war unleashed by the German Fascist aggressors on the 22-d of June, 1941, destroyed peaceful Labour of all the Soviet people as well as the people of Khvastovichy. Millions of people arose to defend their Motherland. More than 5 thousand people of Khvastovichy were mobilized to the rows of the Red Army, fought in battles with the strong and treacherous enemy.
The inhabitants of Khvastovichy enthusiastically took part in the meeting held on the collective farm named after Kirov of the Khvastovichy district. The people of Khvastovichy as all the Soviet people voluntarily joined the rows of the Red Army. The women joined the rows together with the men.
In October 1941 the territory of our region was occupied by the aggressors.
Having taken Khvastovichy, Hitlerites immediately began to rob the inhabitants. The soldiers went from house to house and took cattle, bread, expensive things, and clothes from the people.
People without armbands were arrested and shot. Women, children, old men from the neighboring villages were driven to Khvastovichy and after ferocious tortures they were shot. The Hitlerites built a gallows in the centre of Khvastovichy, on which in different times more than 150 peaceful citizens were hanged.
In September, 1941 Khvastovichy district committee organized three partisan detachments. Soon they were united into one. A partisan detachment “To the fight for Motherland” was formed to fight the aggressors. The commander-in-chief was Buslovsky who before the war had worked as director of Khvastovichy machine-tractor stations.
He died during the fight on the 4-th of February 1943. The detachment was named after the brave commander. Commissar Simakov S. U. was appointed the detachment’s commander-in-chief. The partisan detachments led fighting actions till the 20-th of July 1943. About 100 fighters were counted in its ranks.
Hundreds of people of Khvastovichy district (G. F. Yurkin, G. I. Belov and others) received medals and orders of valour.
Their portraits are presented in the square of Fame Heroes in the centre of Khvastovichy.
The fate (commander-in-chief M/ P/ Petrov) of the 50-th Army was tragical in those days, as the Army retreated from Bryansk to the east along the territory of Khvastovichy district.
The formations of the 50-th Army withdrew to the river Resseta on the 12-th of October 1941. It was impossible to break through the enemy encirclement. On the 7-th of October the fascists took a village. One way was left-that was to take over the right bank of the river Resseta. The building of the temporary bridges took place in 3 places. The 154-th stooping division fulfilled engineering works under a constant fire of the enemy aviation and artillery.
Only one temporary bridge was completed. Though the army had large losses it managed to cross the river. The commander, general M. P. Petrov was badly wounded in the battle near the Resseta. A few days later he died because of gangrene. He was buried in Bryansk.
The commander of operations section of the Army Lieutenant-colonel Pochema and the commander of the artillery of the Army colonel Liselidze continued to withdraw their troops to Belev.
Having crossed the river the troops tried to break through Gutovsk timber mill more than once, but retreated to the starting line, suffering serious losses. One of the attempts was completed with success. This time the 999-th Shooting regiment under command of Lieutenant-colonel Vedenin went into action.
The regiment succeeded in breaking through the enemy’s defenses. Later after the reformation of the 50tharmy the defense of Tula and the liberation of Kaluga took place.
On the 16th of July 1943 Khvastovichy partisan detachment joined the units of the Red Army which broke through the front line. Then the liberation of the territory of the district from the German fascist aggressors began. During that occupation which lasted from the 7-th of October 1941 till the 20-th of August the district was seriously damaged by the German fascists. They turned into ruins industrial enterprises, destroyed main means of industry, collective farms, machine – tractor stations.
Making a fighting retreat they burnt the centre of Khvastovichy and a number of villages and settlements were raged to the ground. It became a habit with the fascists to inflict blood reprisals on the people of the village. Before the occupation of our district there lived 28643inhabitants and 812 inhabitants were shot, 67-were hanged, 50-died as a result of the artillery bombardments and bombing attacks. More than 11.000 people were driven away to the captivity, among them 1300 people from Khvastovichy.
The day before the war there were 12866 houses and only 6814 were left after the fascists had been driven away. The aggressors took from the inhabitants and collective farms by force: 5550 heads of horses, more then 5430 heads of the cattle, 7300 heads of sheep, and 1540 heads of pigs. There were fired and destroyed 48 schools, 3 hospitals, 16 medical centers, 11 clubs, and 29 peasants' reading rooms. Battles which took place on the territory of Khvastovichy district and the neighboring districts in summer 1943 were considered as the greatest battles of the Great Patriotic War.
The divisions of the 11-th Army (commander-in-chief general Fedyuninsky) liberated the territory of Khvastovichy district from the fascist aggressors. The inhabitants of Khvastovichy with gratitude remember about heroic deeds of the soldiers of the 96th shooting division, the commander-in-chief of which was colonel Bulatov. This division liberated Khvastovichy on the 15-th of August 1943.
Other populated areas of the areas of the district were liberated by the soldiers of the 4-th and 135-th shooting divisions under the command of colonels Vorobjov and Sosnov. On the 20-th of August the territory of district was completely liberated from the German-fascist aggressors.
Long awaited Victory Day
It came to us in May Day
Together with Sun in a clear sky
Together with hundreds of soldiers who died.
The 11-th Army took attack in general direction to Khvastovichy. The Hitlerites, dislodged from the principal line of defense strengthened firmly on the fire lines, which stretched along the Khvastovichy district line: Ktsyn-Beresna-Katunovka-Kolodyasy-Mileevo-Novosyolki-Tereben’-Kudryavets.
The German General Headquarters understood that with the loss of this line they would have to withdraw their troops close to Bryansk. That’s why the fascists resisted here so violently.
They managed to turn populated areas of the district such as Frolovo, Votkino, Podbuzhie, Penevichy, Nekhochy, Boyanovichy, Sloboda, Avdeevka, Staiki, Annino into large centers of resistance.
After the liberation of Klyon and Trosna which took place on the 13-th June 1943 it took our troops 3 months to complete the liberation of the territory of our district.
In battles near Frolov died the commander of the 135-th shooting division A. N. Sosnov, near Anino- the commander of the shooting regiment K.A/ Trengulov. When attacking the village Mokry Verkh the soldier of the 862-th shooting regiment of the 197-th shooting division Nikolai Talalushkin repeated the heroic deed of Alexander Matrosov. The military rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union was conferred on him posthumously. The 197-th, 323-rd, 273-rd and 369-th shooting divisions also took part in the liberation of some populated areas of the district.
3517 people died valiantly. Many of them displayed great courage and life. Hundreds of people were awarder fighting orders and medals.
Our countrymen L.M. Agafonov from Katunovka, E,V. Artamonov from Palkevichy, I.I. Efremov from Lenino, N.N/ Simonenko from Podbuzhie, N.A. Stefanchikov from Staiki were honoured to the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union F.F. Kotov became a complete holder of Fame Order.
The monument of “Mourning Mother” was installed on the western outskirts of Khastovichy by the road Khvastovichy-Sudimir.
84 inhabitants, old men, women and children-were shot and buried by the Hitlerites on this place on April 1942.
The inhabitants were brought there from the village Zhurinichy and neighboring settlements of the present Bryansk region.
Khvastovichy Fraternal Cemetry on which were buried 4 thousand soldiers who had died in battles with the German fascist invaders on the territory of the district was created in 1955.
Many obelisks and monuments were installed in many settlements of the district in honour and memory of the countrymen who perished during the Great Patriotic War.
There is a stand in the museum “Our countrymen- participants of the Great Patriotic War”.
1. Danilov Tikhon Kharitonovich
2. Chernkov Vasily Dmitrievich
3. Dudov Leonid Tikhonovich
Some people and delegations who visit the Museum of Regional Studies try to leave some presents and they always remember the information about museum. In the hall “The Presents” you can see books, sets of cards, postcards, badges, pictures of some cosmonauts, albums, guide-books. There are pictures on the sheets of veneer, such as “Pine at the sea”, Sea-gulls over the Sea”, “The bas-relief on the Stand”, “Tsiolkovsky”. There are presents from pupils of Karnavar, they are the town emblem of Penza and Lermontov's Museum House. Secondary school of Penza region is the motherland of commander-in-chief of the regiment Trengulov who died in the battle for liberation of the village Anino which is situated in 5 km. to the north of Khvastovichy. The guests from Dobropolya (Ukraine) gave portraits of Taras Shevchenko, Lesya Ukrainka and Ivan Franko.
There are portraits of the commander-in-chief of the partisan detachment “To the battle for Motherland” Buslovsky Nikolai Ivanovich. One of them was made by the former pupil of the 10th form of our school Alexei Tretyakov, and another was given by the Buslovsky's relatives. Buslovsky died on the 4th of February 1943.
There is also the present from the students of Chemistry-Technological Institute, that is a tyubeteika (skull-cap worn in Central Asia) which is situated on the stand “View of Kazan Kremlin”. They visit Khvastovichy every year. The commander-in chief of the 96th shooting division Bulatov Fatykh Garipovich lived in Kazan. This divion liberated Khvastovichy in August 1943.
There is also a memory medal “50 years of Khvastovichy Secondary School” which was given by the first school-leaver of the secondary school Aleksei Petrovich Osiptsov. He is a retired colonel. He lives in Sevastopol. Sergei Yakovlevich Ponin is also a school-leaver of our school. He was in India and gave to us a napkin of Indian production and a sea-shell. The symbolic key of Kozelsk is a present from the pupils from Kozelsk.
There is a present of the military-men of the inhabitants of Khvastovichy who served in the former G. D. R., that is a medal “Ernst Telman”, there is land Bukhenvald where Telman died in the concentration camp. The is also a model of the monument in Shipk (Bulgaria). The Russian soldiers helped the Bulgarian people to free themselves from Turkish joke in 1878.
There is a present from the pupils of Duminichy School. It is a patrubok of sanitary technical center, that is a production of Khotkovsky factory in Duminichy region.
The model of cosmic rocket is a present of the former school-leaver of our school Gerasimov Sergei.
The picture “The Stranger” was brought by the tourists of our school from the village Trosna of Khvastovichy region. The boys asked the inhabitant of that village to give it to the museum.
The streamers were given by the tourists from Obninsk, Zhizdra and other towns.
So horrors from the past war did not fade away from people's memory , the tears of orphans and widows who have lost their relatives are not dried yet. We should hold the memory of them because they have given their lives for freedom and independence our Motherland!
Period of the Recent Time.
Here you will get acquainted with the main landmarks of the 20th century. Our region was agricultural before the Revolution 1917. Scantiness of the soil, absence of the simple agrotechnics led to the low harvest. Often people did not have time to gather what was sown. The peasants had a miserable existence.
Our people transformed agriculture after the October Revolution. 3 collective farms were created on the territory of our village. The first collective farm was called “Tractor”, the second “Named after Kirov” and the third “Named after Dimitrov”. The collective farm “Tractor” was named so because it got a tractor in Khvastovichy. The tractor appeared in 1931. The first tractor-driver was Dukhov Ivan Stepanovich. The workers of the village took an active part in the fulfillment of the plans of the first five-year periods. But they succeeded to fulfill only two and a half five-year periods. The Great Patriotic War began. The enemy caused enormous damage to our village- 650 living houses were fired, the enemy destroyed a timber-mill, a hemp-mill, the machine-tractor station, a hospital, a school, all the shops and so on.
The reconstruction of the agriculture and industry was started after the banishment of the fascists. A glass factory began to work in the settlement “Elensky” in 1944. The fabric of the immaterial linen was opened in Khvastovichy in 1985. The branch of Moscow Production association “Krasny Bogatir” began to work in 1971. There is a stand in the museum where it is seen how the process of making production is organized. In the show-case you can see the production of the last and the present time. The collective farms and state farms were integrated in the 60th years. The leading farm was the farm named after Karl Marks. The main branches were stock-breeding, cultivating agricultural crops. Nowadays the collective farm is transformed into agricultural enterprise. The chairman of the farm is Uglov Nikolai Alexandrovich.
The region has been developing in 70-80th years of the 20th century. In the village were opened a secondary school, a hospital, a House of Culture, a cafe “Berezka”, many shops, a bakery, a starch factory, a brick factory. You can see some pictures on the stand. The mini dairy factory, trade-commercial beautiful shops and a market were also opened in Kolodyasi. The equipment of the enterprises was changed; a five-storied living house was built. The most important event in the life of the people of Khvastovichy was the celebration of the 500 year of the village (1995). You can see themain fragments of the celebration on the stand
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